Thursday, August 27, 2020
Subsidizing Cuts on District Schools - Essay Example To guarantee that every kid is cooked for including the debilitated and extraordinary needs kids, locale training loads up helped by the central governments have over the time supported these schools. The locale training board likewise perceives that parts of development in a youngster are connected; which implies that the enthusiastic, physical, social and scholarly needs in a kid must be provided food for (Farguhar and Fitzsimons, 2007). This has constrained the region sheets to utilize enormous spending plans in utilizing various kinds of educators and different teachers in the various fields to guarantee a smooth development in youngsters under region schools. These zones of youngster development make having a few youth teachers a significant endeavor in all locale schools. Be that as it may, as of now, with the financial emergency in national governments and the general spending cuts by the focal governments, there has been where the moves under the region schools required to ha lf-pint these tasks have been exposed to monstrous cuts and exacting control in subsidizing of these schools. This has been seen by numerous individuals as absence of a solid hold by the central government on the training framework, while others have expected that such enormous cuts will influence the quality instruction for all kids in these schools. In any case, considering the elective methodologies that area schools can apply to adjust the impacts of spending cuts, these spending cuts would not influence the nature of instruction in these schools. By and large, schools are confronted with genuine budgetary imperatives in their presentation, which has been disclosed by numerous individuals to influence the learning quality particularly in youth training, where exceptional consideration must be taken in offering the kids quality consideration that ascribes legitimately to their development.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Medieval Islamic earthenware involved a land position between Chinese ceramics and the stoneware of the Byzantine Empire and Europe. For a large portion of the period it can reasonably be said to have been between the two as far as stylish accomplishment and impact too, acquiring from China and sending out to and affecting Byzantium and Europe. The utilization of drinking and eating vessels in gold and silver, the perfect in antiquated Rome and Persia just as medieval Christian social orders, is denied by the Hadiths, with the outcome that earthenware and glass were utilized for flatware by Muslim elites, as ceramics (however less frequently glass) likewise was in China, yet was a lot rarer in Europe and Byzantium. Islamic limitations Similarly Islamic limitations extraordinarily disheartened non-literal divider painting, empowering the structural utilization of plans of beautifying tiles, which are the most particular and unique claim to fame of Islamic pottery. Period of Islamic Pottery The period of Islamic earthenware began around 622. From 633, Muslims armed forces moved quickly towards Persia, Byzantium, Mesopotimia, Anatolia, Egypt and later Andalusia. Early History of Islamic Pottery The early history of Islamic stoneware remains to some degree dark and theoretical as meager proof has endure. Aside from tiles which got away from demolition because of their utilization in design beautification of structures and mosques, much early medieval stoneware disappeared. The Muslim world acquired noteworthy ceramics ventures in Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa (African Red Slip) and later different areas. Early Medieval (622-1200) A particular Muslim style in earthenware was not immovably settled until the ninth century in Iraq (previously Mesopotamia), Syria and Persia. During this period pieces for the most part utilized white tin-coat. Data on prior periods is exceptionally constrained. This is to a great extent because of the absence of enduring examples in great condition which additionally restricts the enthusiasm for the investigation of pottery of these periods. The most profoundly respected method of this middle is the utilization of calligraphy in the embellishment of vessels. Chinese effect on Islamic Pottery During the Abbasid line earthenware creation picked up energy, to a great extent utilizing tin coats generally as misty white coating. A few history specialists, for example, Arthur Lane, trait the ascent of such industry to Chinese impact. Three principle stages As indicated by Lane, the impact of Chinese earthenware advanced in three fundamental stages. Ã ·The first contact with China occurred in 751 when the Arabs crushed the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. It has been contended that detained Chinese potters and paper creators could have shown the Muslims the craft of earthenware and paper-production. In 800Ã¢â¬â¢s Chinese stoneware and porcelain arrived at the Abbasids. Ã ·The second stage occurred in the twelfth and thirteenth hundreds of years, a period noted for the decrease of earthenware industry following the fall of the Seljuk administration. This period additionally observed the intrusion of the Mongols who brought Chinese stoneware customs. Ã ·The third stage was in the fifteenth century, when a lot of this impact came through imports produced using Tang, Song and Ming traditions on account of Zheng He. Islamic advancements From between the eighth and eighteenth hundreds of years, the utilization of coated earthenware production was pervasive in Islamic workmanship, normally accepting the type of expound ceramics. Tin-opacifiedglazing, for the creation of tin-coated earthenware, was one of the most punctual new advances created by the Islamic potters. Center (1200Ã¢â¬1400) By this period the particular Islamic convention of adorned divider tiles had risen, and kept on growing along with vessel stoneware in a manner one of a kind to Islamic craftsmanship. The Seljuks carried new and new motivation to the Muslim world, pulling in specialists, skilled workers and potters from all districts including Egypt. Notwithstanding proceeding with the creation of comparable (albeit progressively refined) tin and brilliance coat pottery, the Seljuks (in Persia) were credited for the presentation of another kind in some cases known as Ã¢â¬Å"FaienceÃ¢â¬ . This is produced using a hard white frit glue covered with straightforward antacid coating. Instances of Islamic Period Pottery Ã ·Glazed ceramics Ã ·Unglazed ceramics Coated ceramics Coated ceramics is normal for the Islamic Period in Egypt, yet there is proof that is was at that point presented in the Byzantine Period (Engeman 1990). Rather than Faience and the coated materials of the Pharaonic time frame, genuine glass was utilized as coating. Hues were delivered by including metallic oxides. At the point when straightforward it could be applied over canvases. Unglazed stoneware Ã ·Water containers had regularly channels incorporated with the neck for keeping out the flies. Particularly the models from Egypt are created with incredible delicacy. Ã ·Most of the earthenware of day by day use created in the Islamic time frame (counting down to today) is unglazed. Ã ·Vessels of unsure capacity, with minimized texture: recommendations for use differ from military shots to capacity of vintage wine.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Should You Use an Installment Loan to Pay Off Your Credit Cards Should You Use an Installment Loan to Pay Off Your Credit Cards? Should You Use an Installment Loan to Pay Off Your Credit Cards?Consolidating all of your credit card debt into a single installment loan will likely save you money, but itll probably mean larger monthly payments.Spending yourself into credit card debt is fairly simple: You spend more money on the cards than you currently have and repeat until youre maxed out. Getting yourself out of credit card debt, on the other hand, is a bit more complicated. You have many options, and none of them are easy.One of the ways you could pay off that debt is to consolidate all those cards into a single debt: a personal installment loan. You use that loan to pay off all your credit cards, leaving you with only one easy payment to make each month. Is this the best method for you? Read on to find out â¦Hereâs how installment loans work.When you take out a personal loan, itâs going to be structured as an installment loan. This means that you pay the loan off in a series of fixed, regular payments. Yo uâll be borrowing a single lump sum of money that you will repay plus interest.The interest rate on your personal loan will vary depending on your credit score. The higher your score, the more creditworthy you will be to a potential lender and the less interest they will charge you. The lower your score, the riskier you will seem and the more interest they will charge you in order to account for it.Interest on installment loans is accrued over time. The longer a loan is outstanding, the more interest it will accrue. However, that interest will accrue based on the remaining principal, so the actual amount of money you accrue in interest will grow smaller over time.Lastly, installment loans are amortizing, which means that every payment you make goes towards both the principal owed and the interest. The amount that goes towards each is determined by the loanâs amortization schedule, but you can rest assured that every on-time payment you make will bring you one step close to being out of debt.Will the loan save you money?Okay, so this question is actually pretty simple to answer: Yes, paying off your credit cards with an installment will almost certainly save you money in the long run.Hereâs why: The standard term for a personal installment loan is anywhere between one and five years. And no matter how long the loanâs repayment term is, itâs pretty much guaranteed to be shorter than the length of time it would take you to pay off your credit cards making only the minimum payments.The monthly minimums for credit cards are often very small, with each payment only accounting for something like one to three percent of the amount owed. When interest rates are factored in, it could take you well over a decade to pay off those cards.Remember, the longer a loan or credit card is outstanding, the more money you will end up paying towards interest. All things being the same, the shorter repayment option will always be the one that saves you money overall.Whatâ s the interest rate?As we mentioned up above, interest rates for both personal loans and credit cards will vary depending on your credit score. So if you have good credit, youâll probably be able to qualify for some personal loans at a reasonable interest rate.Furthermore, the interest rates for personal loans are generally lower than the interest rates for credit cards. So even if the rate is higher than you might prefer, itâs still probably lower than the rate youâre paying on your credit card.However, racking up a lot of excess credit card debt is going to lower your credit score, as the amount of debt you owe is the second most important factor in your credit score. This decreases the likelihood that youâll find an online loan or a loan from brick-and-mortar lender with a great rate.Itâs a bit of a Catch-22 scenario: You want to find a low-cost personal loan to pay down your credit card debt, but you need to pay down your credit card debt in order to qualify for the l ow-cost personal loan.If you have a lousy score, you might be stuck with bad credit loans that actually have a higher interest rate than your credit cards. Way higher. Even if these loans donât have rates as high as no credit check loans like payday loans, title loans, and cash advances, youâre still probably best off skipping debt consolidation and just trying to pay down your credit cards outright.What are your monthly payments?We mentioned earlier that the monthly minimum payments for credit cards are very small. Its a double-edged sword; those small payments make it much harder to get out of debt but it also means theyre fairly affordableâ"especially relative to the amount of debt you owe in total.This is where we arrive at the biggest issue with consolidating your debt through a personal installment loan: Even with a lower interest rate, those shorter repayment terms almost guarantee that your monthly payment will be larger than the monthly minimums on your credit cards.If youâre struggling to afford your monthly minimum payments, this could make consolidation a non-starter for you. Saving money in the long run is great, but you still have to be able to afford your payments in the here and now.Hereâs the flipside: Any debt repayment plan is going to involve paying more each month than youâre currently paying towards your monthly minimums. Donât let those larger payments discourage you: trim your budget, maybe pick up a second job or side hustle, and get crackinâ.What are other methods of debt repayment?Consolidating your credit cards onto a personal installment loan is a viable method of debt repaymentâ"especially if youâve got a decent credit scoreâ"but itâs far from the only method out there.The two most popular debt repayment methods are the Debt Snowball and the Debt Avalanche. Both of these involve putting all of your extra debt repayment funds towards one debt at a time, rather than spreading them around evenly. The difference c omes in how they prioritize which debts to pay off first.With the Debt Snowball, you pay off your debt with the lowest balance first, working your way up to the debt with the largest balance. This will actually cost you a little more money in the end, but it prioritizes early victories to help you get the encouragement you need to keep going.The Debt Avalanche, on the other hand, keeps its eyes on the numbers. It has you prioritize your debts by interest rate, paying off the highest-rate debt first and then working your way down to the debt with the lowest rate. This saves you money compared to the Debt Snowball, but it could leave you waiting awhile before you notch your first debt pay-off victory.Lastly, you could transfer your credit card balances onto other cards using a zero percent APR offer. This gives you an interest-free grace period to work with, but carries the sizeable risk of leaving you with more credit card debt than when you began.To read more about getting out of de bt, check out these related posts and articles from OppLoans:Want to Pay Off Your Debt? Try Building a Better Budget!What to Do When You Have Too Much Medical DebtFinancial Priorities: Which Debts Should You Pay Off First?8 Good Habits to Get Your Financesâ"and Your Lifeâ"on TrackDo you have a personal finance question youd like us to answer? Let us know! You can find us on Facebook and Twitter.Visit OppLoans on YouTube | Facebook | Twitter | LinkedIN |Instagram
Monday, May 25, 2020
Globalization, according to sociologists, is an ongoing process that involves interconnected changes in the economic, cultural, social, and political spheres of society. As a process, it involves the ever-increasing integration of these aspects between nations, regions, communities, and even seemingly isolated places. In terms of the economy, globalization refers to the expansion of capitalismÃ to include all places around the world into one globally integrated economic system. Culturally, it refers to the global spread and integration of ideas, values, norms, behaviors, and ways of life. Politically, it refers to the development of forms of governance that operate at the global scale, whose policies and rules cooperative nationsÃ are expected toÃ abide. These three core aspects of globalization are fueled by technological development, the global integration of communication technologies, and the global distribution of media. The History of Our Global Economy Some sociologists, like William I. Robinson, frame globalization as a process that began with the creationÃ of the capitalist economy, which formed connections between distant regions of the world as far back as the Middle Ages. In fact, Robinson has argued that because a capitalist economy is premised on growth and expansion, a globalized economy is the inevitable result of capitalism. From the earliest phases of capitalism onward, European colonial and imperial powers, and laterÃ U.S. imperialism, created global economic, political, cultural, and social connections around the world. But despite this, up until the mid-20th century, the world economy was actually a compilation of competing and cooperating national economies. Trade was international rather than global. From the mid-20th century on, the process of globalization intensified and quickened as national trade, production, and finance regulations were dismantled, and international economic and political agreements were forged in order to produce a global economy premised on the Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬ movement of money and corporations. The Creation of Global Forms of Governance The globalization of the world international economy and of the political cultureÃ and structures was led by wealthy, powerful nations made rich by colonialism and imperialism, including the U.S., Britain, and many Western European nations. From the mid-twentieth century on, leaders of these nations created new global forms of governance that set the rules for cooperation within the new global economy. These include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Twenty, the World Economic Forum, and OPEC, among others. Cultural Aspects of Globalization The process of globalization also involves the spread and diffusion of ideologies (values, ideas, norms, beliefs, and expectations) that foster, justify, and provide legitimacy for economic and political globalization. History has shown that these are not neutral processes and that it is ideologies from dominant nations that fuel and frame economic and political globalization. Generally speaking, it is these that are spread around the world, becoming normal and taken for granted. The process of cultural globalization happens through the distribution and consumption of media, consumer goods, and the Western consumer lifestyle. It is also fueled by globally integrated communication systems like social media, disproportionate media coverage of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s elite and their lifestyles, the movement of people from the global northÃ around the world via business and leisure travel, and the expectations of these travelers that hostÃ societies will provide amenities and experiences that reflect their own cultural norms. Because of the dominance of Western and Northern cultural, economic, and political ideologies in shaping globalization, some refer to the dominant form of it as Ã¢â¬Å"globalization from above.Ã¢â¬ This phrase refers to the top-down model of globalization that is directed by the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s elite. In contrast, the Ã¢â¬Å"alter-globalizationÃ¢â¬ movement, composed of many of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor, working poor, and activists, advocates for a truly democratic approach to globalization known as Ã¢â¬Å"globalization from below.Ã¢â¬ Structured this way, the ongoing process of globalization would reflect the values of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s majority, rather than those of its elite minority.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The importance of science and technology cannot be overlooked from our day to day lives. It has revolutionized the way we live. The creation of virtual spaces where distances do not matter, the bigger and better health care facilities which are now available, the effectiveness of the physical connectivity, the efficient utilization of the resources to the better ways of living, the use of the technology has definitely improved our standard of living. We are a part of the entire universal system and the entire universe is controlled and revolves around science and technology. In our every day way of life, science and technology plays an important role in our way of living and ultimately affects the way in which we live and function in our society. From minor things like communication which includes the use of cell phones and satellites to security and safety purposes, science has come a long way. Unlike the older days or the previous centuries, where the role of science on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life was limited to a particular arena or field, today science has become an indispensible part of our lives. 1.1. Definition Of Science And Technology Ã¢â¬Å"ScienceÃ¢â¬ derives itself from Latin word scientia, meaning knowledge. It is a systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about nature and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories whereas Ã¢â¬Å"TechnologyÃ¢â¬ is a term referring to whatever can be said at any particular historical period, concerning the state of the artShow MoreRelatedImportance of Science and Technology916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLanguage Department, Ms. Sheela Sher Habib, Head of the Science and Mathematics Department, Madam Hanizah Binti Mahfoz, Head of the Technical and Vocational Department, Mr. Beh Chye Pin, Head of the Social Science Department, Madam Yang Chee Wah, senior teachers, excellent, beloved, caring, loving, dedicated and committed teachers, prefects, class monitors and to my fellow friends. First and foremost, I would like to express my special thanks to Science and Mathematics Club of Sultan Ismail Secondary SchoolRead MoreThe Importance of Science and Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases in the Late 19th Century987 W ords Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Importance of Science and Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases in the Late 19th Century Infectious disease had posed problems for many people for centuries. The developed knowledge of anatomy and the working of the human body led to more and more understanding of what caused illness and diseases. Many scientists and doctors searched for cures and treatments and from the 18th century onwards there were many discoveries and developments that helped the battleRead MoreComputer Science Is A Meaningful Life999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesComputer science promotes a meaningful life. Computer science means the principles and use of computer. It not only limits there because computer science defines mathematics everyday life. The author argues the effect of computer science at all over our curriculum in high school. This is important because computer science compels students to create problem to solving thus engage them more into work, especially mathematics. Computer science motivates work in mathematics as it relates to each otherRead MoreThe Impact Of Computer Science Education On The Curriculum1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAtchison, Williams F.. Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of computer science education on the curriculumÃ¢â¬ . The Mathematics Teacher 66.1 (1973): 7Ã¢â¬â83. Computer science promotes a meaningful life. Computer science means the principles and use of computer. It not only limits there because computer science defines mathematics everyday life. The author argues the effect of computer science at all over our curriculum in high school. This is important because computer science compels students to create problem to solving thusRead MoreImpact Of Technology On The Development Of Civilization1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn contemporary society, science has played a more pivotal role than technology in the development of civilization. The purpose of science is to develop a vast breadth and depth of data and knowledge to enable us to understand why things are the way they are (Oberdan 26). On the other hand, technology is used to improve real problems based on justified beliefs and organizational systems (Oberdan 28). Without the knowledge and understanding of science, innovation would be lessened and society wouldRead MoreThe Importance of Tech nology1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAccording to Vikram (7), technology refers the application of scientific knowledge and skills for practical purposes in diverse fields such as industries, education, and agriculture among other fields. Technology is therefore an organized knowledge for practical purposes in human day to day life. The fundamental purpose of every human life is to increase standards of living, improve the quality of his life and to always have a greater satisfaction in life (Vikram 8). These fundamental purposes canRead MoreBiometrics : Biometrics And Biometrics1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor shared with another individual. This security allows for biometrics to provide a means to reliability authenticate personnel. The importance of biometrics can be further divided into the history of biometrics and why it was devised, past implementations of biometrics, current implementations of biometrics, and future implementations of biometrics. 2. Importance of Biometrics Biometrics are important to not only information systems, but to information security as a subject. Today, most informationRead MoreGadamerÃ¢â¬â¢s On the Natural Inclination of Human Beings Toward Philosophy follows an idea that a1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGadamerÃ¢â¬â¢s On the Natural Inclination of Human Beings Toward Philosophy follows an idea that a desire for knowledge, in researching philosophy and sciences, can be related to Platos thaumazein, the idea of wonder. The specifically human function of thinking starts, not routinely or in merriment, but at Ã¢â¬ ¦a point where something strikes us as alien because it runs counter to habitual expectation. (Gadamer 143) The fascination and wonderment towards ideas Gadamer claims, Ã¢â¬ ¦comes to me above all inRead MoreThe Impact of Computer Science on Health Care Medicine1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Impact of Computer Science on Health Care amp; Medicine Abstract Computer science can be defined as the systematic study of algorithmic processes, their theory, design, analysis, implementation and application. Its functions in the modern society today expand far beyond the uses one could even begin to imagine. Specifically, there is an increased influence in its practical application in the field of medicine. In recent times, an interdependent relationship between medicineRead MoreEssay on Fear of Science and Technology1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFear of Science and Technology Traditionally, most people think of science in form of physics, chemistry, biology. They might also include the social science , anthropology, economics, psychology, and sociology as a branch of science. In truth, within each of these fields have emerged a new subdivision of science which continue emerging at present time and in future rapidly. Science branches are being vaster in every moments of our life; Science has come one of the dominant force in our time. By
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Auditing Concepts for Accounting Theory and Application. Answer: Introduction The study elucidates aspects of positive or renders scientific approach aligning with accounting research. In other words, focus has been given on defining the major objectives pertaining towards human behavior causes and making the necessary accounting settings. The study is based on an article titled as Half a Defense of Positive Accounting Research (Dunmore 2011). This article explains the set of ontological and epistemological assumptions needed for scientific research for viewing at the feasibility aspects for intellectual projects. This is in regard with certain assumptions that turns out to be wrong, illogical or sometimes absurd in some cases (Watts and Zimmerman 2013). The present segment explains positive research in accounting especially at the time of defensive activities. In some cases, accounting becomes defensible in nature and hard to manage in the upcoming financial year. Therefore, the study enhances in gaining understanding over the level of progress and logics by using the data collection methods such as Qualitative and Quantitative Research (Wolk and Tearney 2012). Summary of the Article This study is based on an article titled as Half a Defense of Positive Accounting Research. The article aims at explain the auditing concepts rendering typical good work. This illustrates on how far practices falls short especially in case of Popper prescriptions (Warfield, Wild and Wild 2013). On the contrary, the article is summarized whereby qualitative researchers make use of theories and conduct hypothesis for testing purposes. It requires underpinning the observational findings aligning with the accounting research. Quantitative Researchers aims at conducting hypothesis testing that is less rigorous after comparing it with Popper prescription. It is combined featuring the detection of actual incorrect hypothesis by the quantitative researchers (Thomas 2014). On summarizing the article, it has been argued that both qualitative and quantitative research methods used for signifying much of a confidence after accepting the observational findings and mistaken ideas correctly. The un derlying success lies in the concept of positive accounting after understanding the artifacts of operations for setting the low standards. In Kuhn description, it is mentioned regarding the normal sciences that fit the major purpose of positive accounting research after comparing it with traditional sciences (Sorter 2014). Therefore, a final prospect explains the underlying fact when Kuhnian crisis as well as resolution takes place by way of explaining the positive accounting. Suggestions are made for rendering practical acts of resistance depending upon the existing system like bringing change in upcoming years. Summarizing the article elucidates discussing upon Kuhnian crisis and revolutionary aspects concerning liberation of positive accounting research for achieving high level of potential advantage (Mautz and Sharaf 2013). Henceforth, there will be many cases offered especially in practical acts of resistance depending upon existing system for bringing change management. This u ndertakes the prospects as discussed regarding Kuhnian crisis and revolution after liberation of positive accounting research in achieving the high level of potential (Scott 2013). It is important to claim the fact whereby Positive Accounting Theory is taken as broader sense concerned with research programs for developmental aspects in causal explanations of human behavior. In other words, this accounting setting compares with PAT existence in accounting research (Schroeder, Clark and Cathey 2012). Therefore, the study summarizes aspects of ontology and epistemology for investigative the programs. Some of the common problems mentioned include casual construction of theoretical models in order to test undue reliance considering hypothesis logics. This reveals lack of interest as presented in the numerical values of parameters and facing insufficient replication. It means gaining proper level of confidence after considering accepted findings as well as use of theoretical approach after examining qualitative data. As far as positive research in accounting is concerned, it deals with examining the large attributes for capabilities in achieving scientific objectives . Furthermore, Kuhn Description explains normal sciences that fit positive accounting research in the most appropriate way (Milne, 2012). After summarizing the article, it has been noted that positive approach explains the concept of accounting research (Mautz and Sharaf 2013). Addition to that, Positive accounting research aims at considering major part of wider intellectual projects especially for scientific research after gaining understanding for cause as well as effect relationship. This means describing the streaming critical accounting research that falls after defining the subject towards critical arguments. This means setting of accounting aspects that causes human behavior in multinational organization (Warfield, Wild and Wild 2013). It requires in undertaking face-to-face interaction after replacing less personal or personal systems in the final decision-making process. Therefore, it means understanding the aspect of importance and deficiencies of positive accounting research especially for wider intellectual projects. It means aligning the concepts based upon ontological as well as epistemological assumptio ns (Mathews and Perera 2014). Research Question Explain the concept of Positive Accounting Research used in accounting. Explain how positive accounting concept can develop causal relationship of human behavior. How Kuhn Description does explains normal sciences concerned with accounting research? Theoretical Framework According to Dunmore (2011), empirical question explains comprehensive causal theories of human behavior and limiting the theory application. Addition to that, there are given extensive areas specifies situation of actions of people in order to offer interpretive research. It means aligning positive, epistemology and ontology in explaining the theories. This means researchers aims at observing imperfections as modified in the social world after constructing potential actions (Littleton and Zimmerman 2012). As rightly put forward by Deegan (2013), scientific research considers data collection that can be either quantitative or qualitative. Some of the theories suggest accumulated data after showing the induction process based on certain assumptions. It means considering some logical support evidence from the acceptance theories as understood by Popper. Addition to that, there occur certain testing predictions of new theories by implementing new observations in certain situations. It means considering old and new theories and forming innovative predictions at the same time (Gray, Owen and Adams 2014). As opined by Dunmore (2011), Popper suggests new theories based on observed regularities as well as proved observations. It takes into consideration inductive observation especially for pure creative and imaginative process especially in empirical data. Addition to that, it includes testing of two theories n case of single theory concern. Therefore, it is argued that falsification means considering inoperable assumptions based on theoretical predictions. Therefore, theories are considered after falsification of anomalous tracks of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft (Wolk and Tearney 2012). As rightly put forward by (Dunmore (2011) there are many science that influences different scale of parameters ranging from macro to mid-range activities in a given situation. Addition to that, it requires testing the descriptions like cause and effect relationship after considering understanding of accounting aspects. It should be kept in consideration involving qualitative sciences such as botany, geology and zoology as developed by Darwin theory of evolution. It was one of the common mistakes especially in social sciences after assuming quantitative research (Mautz and Sharaf 2013) According to Dunmore (2011), there are major two distinct purpose used for undertaking qualitative research by the researcher. Addition to that, it means collection of data for assisting ways in order to develop preliminary understanding of major phenomenon at the time of attempting quantitative measurement. In other words, it requires sorting out questions from positive context of audit pricing research (Warfield, Wild and Wild 2013). The current study focus on regression analysis for understanding the auditor pricing as presented in the audit report. Therefore, it means data gathering aspects after determination of tender bid, differentiating behavioral pattern, and presenting strategies adopted by audit partners (Wolk and Tearney 2012). Significance and Limitations of the article The major significance of the article is written in the version of Popper Logic. In other words, it requires measuring the test statistics used for viewing at the certainty as well as incompatibility of concepts from null hypothesis (Warfield, Wild and Wild 2013). It requires eliminating shifting of conventional significance for threshold attributes by keeping p as 0.00001. Therefore, it requires considering re-attribution of true positives after accepting statistical findings at the time of demanding for gaining stronger evidence. On the contrary, it has been noted that there are mainly two distinct motives behind replicating previous studies like determination of whether original results views at the sampling error. Addition to that, it explores limits for application of previous findings for future analysis purpose. Several significant factors are mentioned in the article used for hypothesis testing. It mentions literature aspects ranging with 1% to 5% after looking at the statistical issues. It requires viewing at the significant levels of misstated figures of regression specifications after publishing the specification. Authors aim at working diligently for trying out the alternative proxies and functional forms based on econometric assumptions. There are some of the non-significant data resulting from false positives after comparing replicating the work (Mautz and Sharaf 2013). There are various motivation concepts designing after replicating the study in a way by accepting samples. This means undertaking same proxies after taking the functional forms and satisfying the econometric assumptions for data collection process by using alternative specifications. It aims at focusing on attributes for testing the level of significance widely depending upon the sample size and residual variance at the same time (Warfield, Wild and Wild 2013). As far as limitations of the study are concerned, it requires huge improvement by the researchers for future scope of research. At times, it can be termed as a disappointing process at the time of conducting positive accounting research while directing towards the consequences (Mautz and Sharaf 2013). It takes into consideration aspects on ad hoc basis like implementing quantitative models after maintaining relationship between the two variables. There are various models used for actual analytical research in well-structured way. This requires extreme measuring the concepts in given subsequent studies after comparing it with re-invention of measurement. In other words, reliable audit measurement concerns with high level of complexity for estimating the parameters (Wolk and Tearney 2012). Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be understood that the article examines the aspects related to ontology and epistemology. In other words, it is regard with understanding the concept of current policies of accounting research as used for operating research programs. The current segment explains implementation of better theoretical models for detailed testing that is highly specified as well as vulnerable in nature. It requires better measurement techniques that should be rigorously tested after conducting theoretical models. Therefore, concepts explain careful implementation of making proxies for establishing reliable relationships. It means selection of correct functional forms of linear relationship between unique concepts. Reference List Deegan, C., 2013.Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Dunmore, P.V., 2011. Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research.Available at SSRN 1955419. Gray, R., Owen, D. and Adams, C., 2014.Accounting accountability: changes and challenges in corporate social and environmental reporting. Prentice Hall. Littleton, A.C. and Zimmerman, V.K., 2012.Accounting theory, continuity and change. Prentice-Hall. Mathews, M.R. and Perera, M.H.B., 2014.Accounting theory development. Nelson. Mautz, R.K. and Sharaf, H.A., 2013.The philosophy of auditing(No. 6). American Accounting Association. Milne, M.J., 2012. Positive accounting theory, political costs and social disclosure analyses: A critical look.Critical perspectives on accounting,13(3), pp.369-395. Schroeder, R.G., Clark, M.W. and Cathey, J.M., 2012.Financial accounting theory and analysis: text and cases. John Wiley and Sons. Scott, W.R., 2013.Financial accounting theory(Vol. 2, No. 0, p. 0). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall. Sorter, G.H., 2014. An" events" approach to basic accounting theory.The Accounting Review,44(1), pp.12-19. Thomas, A.L., 2014.The allocation problem in financial accounting theory(No. 9). American Accounting Association. Warfield, T.D., Wild, J.J. and Wild, K.L., 2013. Managerial ownership, accounting choices, and informativeness of earnings.Journal of accounting and economics,20(1), pp.61-91. Watts, R.L. and Zimmerman, J.L., 2013. Positive accounting theory: a ten year perspective.Accounting review, pp.131-156. Wolk, H.I. and Tearney, M.G., 2012.Accounting theory: A conceptual and institutional approach. Thomson South-Western.